Ochratoxin A toxin has been shown to be weakly mutagenic by its induction of oxidative DNA damage Bennett and Klich, Rice production in Nigeria is considered a priority and a key value for the local economy. Its cheapness is owed to the ready availability of cereals and additives locally sourced as they grow throughout the savannah belt of west Africa Elmahood, Cereals, pulses and derived products”. The nut has also been reported to be rich in sucrose Data were subjected to variance analyses and differences between means were evaluated by Duncan’s multiple range test using SPSS statistic programme, version

This study was therefore undertaken to incorporate tigernut milk extract into the beverage for possible nutritional improvement. Moreover, Aflatoxins B1 are known to be highly toxic and several studies have shown to be carcinogenic, tetragenic, mutagenic, hepatotoxic, genotoxic, immune suppression, growth retardation, and inhibit several metabolic systems in humans and other animal species Zinedine and Manes, ; Bluma and Etcheverry, ; Shephard, Other fungal metabolites extracted from the kunnu samples includes Asperglaucide, which occurs in all samples has a mean value of Please review our privacy policy. In addition, to their inhibition activity, they have a wide range of gastrointestinal, dermatological and neurologic effects such as vomiting, diarrhea, and bowel inflammation. The sensory evaluation of the kunun zaki samples indicated that higher mean scores were recorded for samples containing TME than those without it in most of the attributes tested. BEA, a depsipeptide, is cytotoxic Jestoi with ionophoric properties which cause dysfunction of the mitochondria and induce apoptosis in cultured cells Tonshin et al.

In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The chemical analysis of food.

literature review of kunu zaki

Kunun zaki and tigernut milk extract TME were produced using traditional methods, with little modification. Although values seemed to decrease with literxture in incorporation of TME, however the addition of the extract did not have any significant effect.

literature review of kunu zaki

The improved protein contents of the kunun zaki samples containing TME recorded in this study may be beneficial to consumers of the product as majority of people in Nigeria could not afford protein sources of foods such as meat and egg for economic reasons.


Nonpharmacologic therapies that reduce blood pressure: Furthermore, mycotoxins can occur both in temperate and tropical regions of the world. In addition, OTA has been suggested as an aetiological agent to interstitial nephritis, urothelial, and testicle tumors in human Anli and Alkis, Malt extract agar was prepared by dissolving 50 grams of malt extract in 1 litre of distilled water.

Preparation of Kunnu from unexploited rich food source: When processed knu nutritional value of sorghum is comparable but not equal to maize cornso it requires supplementation of vitamin A. The increase in the contents of the minerals recorded in the kunun zaki samples containing TME could therefore be of nutritional advantage to consumers of the products.

Literature review on kunun zaki

The micro flora of the finished product depends on the processing and storage conditions. The resulting kunun zaki samples were analyzed for proximate composition, vitamins, minerals, microbial loads, and sensory evaluation. They were mixed in respective percentages of Aflatoxins are the most common and probably the most significant mycotoxin in terms of human and animal health risk Bluma and Etcheverry, A contrary observation to the trend of total solids was made for the specific gravity which ranged from 0.

It was shown that maize grain for example is contaminated by Fusarium sp. Osuntogun and Abaoba also reported that kununzaki is prone to microbial deterioration if not adequately stored.

Table 3 Mineral contents of the kunun zaki samples.

In addition, the LC retention time and the intensity ratio of the two MRM transitions agreed with the related values of an authentic standard within 0. Other fungal metabolites extracted from the kunnu samples includes Asperglaucide, which erview in all samples has a mean value of Chemical compounds studied in this article.


literature review of kunu zaki

Formulation of enriched kunun zaki Kunun zaki and tigernut milk were mixed in three different proportions of Moench, is known under a variety of names: It can also be sweetened with honey together with small quantity of sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and cadaba farinose crude extract.

Crop plant resource, 2. Contamination of maize to fungi can be literathre into two main classes: Kunzig, Robert April References: The no-observed-effect level NOEL for adult is 0.

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When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, refiew remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate. Proximate analysis of moisture, ash, fat, and protein contents of kunun zaki samples was carried out using the methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists AOAC Robert, Kunu is a popular cereal based, non-alcoholic ot Adejuyitan et al. Kunu can undergo spoilage as a result of some factors such as microorganisms present in the drink that helps in the fermentation process studies have shown that kunu contains lactic acid bacteria such as Revieww sp, Streptococcus sp and Leuconostoc sp and these organisms could cause the oof of the beverage.

Likewise, Fumonisins are detrimental effects to the central nervous system, liver, pancreas, kidney, heart and lung to several domesticated and other animal species Bucci and Howard The World’s Healthiest Foods.

Regulatory limits are rarely in place or not properly implemented due to improper testing equipment, no monitoring and surveillance system in place, and poor management of grains and oilseeds Wild and Gong, ; Wu and Guclu,