These vesicles can hinder food consumption because the tongue may be swollen and painful [ 13 ] Fig. Background In , Robinson et al. It can be noted that although literature demonstrating ocular complications of HFMD is limited, as the disease is not notifiable, many complications may be occurring worldwide without being reported. Objectives The primary objective of this case report is to describe an unusual clinical record of a patient who developed central serous retinopathy while unwell with HFMD. C4aEV71 genotype is now the more common infectious agent in China. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland.

Coxsackievirus A6—induced hand-foot-mouth disease. Conclusion It is evident that infectious diseases, particularly HFMD, have high prevalence in child-care settings, which places child-care workers and visitors to childcare centers at risk of disease transmission. OCT retinal thickness map and horizontal high-resolution images of the right eye showing central serous chorioretinopathy. It is worth noting the large number of reports on Asian patients with HFMD and severe neurological complications caused by EV71, which can rapidly progress to fulminant cardiorespiratory failure and death. Central serous retinopathy CSR is a chorioretinal disease of the eye that is characterized by an accumulation of subretinal fluid in the posterior pole.

No significant differences between boys and girls.

Central serous retinopathy and hand–foot–mouth disease: coincidence or causation?

Children under 2 with EV71 are the highest risk group for developing the severe form revifw the disease. Inthere was a case reported of monofocal outer retinitis associated with HFMD caused by Coxsackie virus in a healthy year-old male.

literature review hfmd

No significant association between the center of care and disease presentation. It is therefore important to emphasize washing hands well and to avoid sharing contaminated utensils. hfnd


He presented to the emergency department and was referred to the local optometrist for investigation. J Korean Med Sci.

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

Vesicles present on hands, palms, and soles, and less commonly on limbs, buttocks, and genitals. Cases of HFMD associated with onychomadesis have been documented. Analysis of the epidemic characteristics of the etiological agents in children with hand, foot and mouth disease and its clinical significance.

The characteristics of blood glucose and WBC counts in peripheral blood of cases of hand foot and mouth disease in China: National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

literature review hfmd

HFMD is a syndrome caused by intestinal viruses from the Picornaviridae family, and is mainly characterized by the appearance of vesicular lesions on the mouth, hands and feet. Characteristically, they appear on the sides and back of the fingers, around the nails, around the heel and on the palm of the hand and soles of the feet.

Similarly, ina year-old female presented with acute maculopathy with concurrent HFMD infection. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Beijing, China [ 2 ]. The examination also found maculopapular lesions on the hands and feet, some of which were in the form of blisters Figs.

Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology.

literature review hfmd

Monofocal outer retinitis associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus. A surveillance system to predict hfm outbreaks, appropriate public health measures and research into vaccine development are of vital importance to control HFMD.

The primary objective of this case report is to describe an unusual clinical record of a patient who developed central serous retinopathy while unwell with HFMD. A case of literaturs combined with hand-foot-mouth disease in a healthy child. Similarly, dentists have a key role in educating patients by recommending good oral hygiene to minimize the spread of the disease.


Initial presentation of acute-onset fever, lumbar pain, and dyspnea; close contact revidw child with HFMD hfmf week earlier. Shikuma et al In contrast, no significant differences have been demonstrated in the genre and viral load between mild and severe cases [ 23 ]. Epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children in Shanghai — The diagnosis is by observing the clinical signs of the disease, such as fever and the characteristic lesions on the hands, feet and mouth.

Recently, cellular receptors have been identified, along with host factors that stimulate EV This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. HFMD is a typical childhood illness, but it also occurs in adults, which should be kept in mind revoew to the possibility of outbreaks, with emphasis on medical history and the overall clinical picture, to avoid inadequate treatments with antibiotics.

China [ 38 ].

Central serous retinopathy and hand–foot–mouth disease: coincidence or causation?

Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. From his background and symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with HFMD.